Sunday, November 25, 2018 0 comments By: Ask A Master Gardener

Ice-Melt Products--The Good and the Bad

Ice-Melt Products in Your Landscape
Allen Robinson: Ask a Master Gardener
Sunday, November 25, 2018
Q: It appears we may have a cold AND wet winter, so I am planning by buying something that will melt ice on my sidewalks. Will ice-melt products harm my plants and lawn? Randy W., Broken Arrow
A: Products used to melt ice on walks and driveways may harm plants, but this depends on what and how much is used. Most of the chemicals marketed today to melt ice are just salts that lower the freezing point of water. All are useful if the labeled directions are followed carefully.
Four of the most commonly used chemicals are sodium chloride (table salt), calcium chloride, calcium magnesium acetate and urea. All are types of salts, except urea, which is a chemical normally found in fertilizers.
These products thaw ice but also have some undesirable effects. They may cause corrosion of concrete and metal and water pollution, as well as harm to plants.
Sodium chloride is the cheapest and most widely used for ice melt. But it has a significant potential for corrosion and plant damage in high concentrations. Calcium chloride and urea have similar risk for corrosion but are less harmful to plants. Calcium magnesium acetate does not corrode or pollute water and does not harm plants. However, as you may have already guessed, it also is the most expensive.
Damage to plants occurs in two ways — first, when directly splashed on plants; secondarily, when absorbed into the soil. When slush-containing salt comes in contact with a plant, it may cause direct injury to evergreen leaves and buds, as well as stems of deciduous plants. This injury, especially in deciduous plants, could go unsuspected as the damage may not appear until next spring.
Salts that filter into the soil can kill plant roots by dehydrating them. It can also raise the soil pH to undesirable levels, thus affecting the overall health of the plant and its ability to take up proper nutrients. This is the same as fertilizer “burn” that gardeners are familiar with when too much fertilizer is put (or spilled) in one location. In addition, large amounts of sodium from sodium chloride can damage the soil structure, making it less friendly to plants.
So what do you do? The ideal approach to ice and snow is to remove as much as possible by hand. Not exactly what you wanted to hear, right? Then, if you feel it is needed, apply an ice-melt chemical to help remove the last layer. Avoid the “more is better” mindset and always follow label directions. Mixing sand in a 3-to-1 ratio with ice melt can reduce the need for chemicals and provides added traction to feet and tires.
Harmful effects of these chemicals may be minimized by hosing salt off plants, when it is possible. Much of the salt in soils may be removed if irrigated with generous amounts of water. We are fortunate that ice and snows are not long-term winter problems in our area and that most people are able to cope without ice melt chemicals.
Garden tips
• Continue to plant balled and burlapped trees.
• Wrap young, thin-barked trees with a commercial protective material to prevent winter sun-scald.
• Fertilize cool-season grasses like fescue with one pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet. This should be the last fertilization for fescue until next spring. Do not fertilize Bermuda or Zoysia until green-up next April.
• Spring-flowering bulbs like hyacinth, narcissus and tulip, which are sold for “forcing,” can be potted indoors for a colorful winter display.
• Tulips can still be planted outdoors through this month.
• Autumn leaves have good uses other than placing them in the trash. They may be mowed directly into the lawn, which will add nutrients and organic matter; they may be shredded with a lawnmower and added to the compost pile; they may be used as mulch or tilled into the soil of your garden beds.
• Remove all debris from the vegetable and flower garden to prevent overwintering of various garden pests.
• Till plenty of organic material into the soil in preparation for spring planting.

Sunday, November 11, 2018 0 comments By: Ask A Master Gardener

Dealing with Acorns in Your Landscape

Dealing with Acorns in Your Landscape
Tom Ingram: Ask a Master Gardener
Sunday, November 11, 2018
Q: What is up with all the acorns this year? When the wind blows, it sounds like hail hitting the roof! NM
A: I was raking leaves off the patio recently, and I don’t remember the last time I needed a shovel to pick up all the acorns. So at least in my yard and the yards of my neighbors, I agree, this year we seem to have more acorns than usual.
However, just because some of us are experiencing a bumper crop, this may not be true throughout the region. These “mast” years (as these large acorn crops are called) can be localized, as the main contributor to fruit production is the weather, and as we know, weather can vary depending on your location and particular microclimate. However, one large oak having a particularly good year can drop up to 10,000 acorns in a mast year. And, yes, that can get noisy on the roof!
The primary weather factors affecting acorn development are spring frosts, summer droughts and fall rains. When the oak trees determine the danger of a spring frost has passed, they begin to flower. Oaks are what we call monoecious. This means that a single oak contains male and female flowers.
If you have an oak tree in your yard, you are probably familiar with the male oak flower as they are those long, worm-like growths that contain a number of flowers arranged like beads on a string. These flowers produce the pollen that tends to give our patios and cars a green tint in the spring. In contrast, the female flowers are quite small and often resemble leaf buds.
The spring winds blow pollen from tree to tree pollinating the female flowers. Interestingly, the acorns of white oaks mature within the year while acorns of red oaks mature over a period of two years.
Some of these acorns may grow up to become oak trees, but others will serve as a source of protein for blue jays, wild turkeys, rodents, deer and bears. Secondarily, if we have a year of larger than normal acorn production, depending on the reproduction cycles of the animals, we can expect surges in the populations of mice, squirrels, chipmunks, deer, bears, turkeys, etc. While this may be good news for some, unfortunately, a rise in mouse and deer populations can secondarily contribute to an increase in the tick population as well.
Even though the noise from the shower of acorns can be unsettling and the quantity we need to clean up in our yards a nuisance, these acorns remain an important part of our natural ecosystem.

Garden tips
  • Leftover garden seeds can be stored in an airtight container in the refrigerator or freezer until next planting season. Discard seeds more than 3 years old.
  • The garden centers still have large selections of spring-blooming bulbs for sale. If you intend to plant bulbs, buy them and plant soon. Tulips can still be successfully planted through the middle of November.
  • Be sure to keep leaves off newly seeded fescue. The sprouts will die without sun and air exposure.